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Objective. To determine the relationship between current hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) use and 2 indicators of glycemic control, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity, in nondiabetic women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods. Nondiabetic women with SLE (n = 149) or RA (n = 177) recruited between 2000 and 2005 for a cross-sectional evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors were characterized by HCQ usage status. Unadjusted and multivariately adjusted mean fasting glucose, median insulin, and insulin resistance [assessed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) calculation] were compared among HCQ users and nonusers for disease-specific groups.
Results. More women with SLE were taking HCQ than those with RA (48% vs 18%; p < 0.0001; mean dose ~ 400 mg vs ~ 200 mg). For women with SLE or RA, after adjustment for age, waist circumference, disease duration, prednisone dosage, C-reactive protein, menopausal status, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and disease-specific indicators, serum glucose was lower in HCQ users than in nonusers (SLE: 85.9 vs 89.3 mg/dl, p = 0.04; RA: 82.5 vs 86.6 mg/dl, p = 0.05). In women with SLE, HCQ use also was associated with lower logHOMA-IR (0.97 vs 1.12, p = 0.09); in those with RA, no differences in logHOMA-IR were seen. HCQ usage was not associated with fasting insulin levels in either patient group.
Conclusion. HCQ use was associated with lower fasting glucose in women with SLE or RA and also lower logHOMA-IR in the SLE group. The use of HCQ may be beneficial for reducing cardiovascular risk by improving glycemic control in these patients.
Supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (RO1 AR046588, K24 AR002213), the Arthritis Foundation of Western Pennsylvania, American Heart Association, and the National Institutes of Health (K23 AR47571); GCRC NIH Grant M01-000056.
- Accepted for publication January 26, 2010.