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The Outcome Measures workshop at CARE III addressed the topic of selecting appropriate and relevant outcome measures for research of nonpharmacological, nonsurgical interventions. Consumers, practitioners, and researchers contributed to small and large group discussions following a series of 7 overview presentations. The importance of measuring what matters to consumers using measures that match the purpose of research studies was emphasized. It was generally agreed that care researchers have access to effective measures of disease status, physical and functional status, and quality of life. Gaps exist in the repertoire of existing measures, including satisfactory ways to measure engagement in more complex roles, the area that has come to be known as participation. It was proposed that client-centered outcome measures addressed this gap, but only in part. Research priorities proposed that new or improved outcome measures be designed for participation in employment, parenting, social relationships, leisure, and school, and that more attention be given to process measures that capture the mediating factors associated with improved health outcomes.