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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longterm effects of the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy infliximab, a drug known to reduce disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: Eighty-two patients (50 with RA, 32 with AS) aged 17-77 years were enrolled. All patients were treated with intravenous infliximab. Lipid profile was assessed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. RESULTS: Disease activity significantly decreased in patients with RA and AS at the end of infliximab therapy. Infliximab treatment significantly increased total cholesterol from 206 to 216 mg/dl (p < 0.05) and triglycerides from 109 to 122 mg/dl (p < 0.05). The low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol did not change during treatment. Furthermore, the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratios did not change significantly. CONCLUSION: The influence of infliximab treatment on lipid profile seems to be neutral, since neither LDL cholesterol levels nor total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratios changed significantly during the 6-month therapy. Our findings suggest that the favorable effect of infliximab treatment on cardiovascular comorbidity may not be mainly mediated by the effects on the lipid profile, but further investigations are needed in order to confirm this hypothesis.