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We describe 21 and 19 year followup of 2 patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who in 1984 and 1986 underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) after full myeloablative conditioning, for therapy-induced aplastic anemia. Regarding the arthritis, both patients are well, taking no medications, and free of signs or symptoms of active RA. One patient is in excellent health overall, while the other has coronary artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attributable to smoking. We suggest that allogeneic BMT may be a curative treatment for severe RA.