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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and clinico-serological correlations of anti-enolase, anti-C1q, and anti-dsDNA antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Sixty-eight sera randomly obtained from SLE patients were examined. Anti-alpha-enolase antibodies were detected by immunoblot on recombinant protein; anti-C1q and anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected using an ELISA. RESULTS: Anti-alpha-enolase, anti-C1q, and anti-dsDNA antibodies were positive in 21%, 62%, and 63% of patients, respectively. A correlation was found between anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies, while anti-enolase antibodies did not correlate with the other 2 specificities. Anti-alpha-enolase antibodies were not correlated with any of the clinical and serological variables examined. Anti-C1q antibodies were correlated with ECLAM score, leukopenia, complement levels, and active renal involvement. Anti-dsDNA antibodies correlated with arthritis, leukopenia, complement levels, and the presence of renal involvement, independent of activity. In patients with active renal disease anti-dsDNA antibodies were correlated with a poor renal outcome, occurring after a mean period of 24 months. CONCLUSION: These data suggest the association of anti-C1q antibodies with disease flares and active renal disease in SLE. The observed association of anti-dsDNA antibodies and renal disease was expected. Further analysis is required to fully assess the clinical significance of anti-a-enolase antibodies.